James Baldwin Speaks! Social Change & The Writer's Responsibility

James Baldwin Speaks! Social Change & The Writer's Responsibility

James Baldwin Speaks! Social Change & The Writer’s Responsibility Amherst, Massachusetts. With questions and answers.

thank you all I'm going to kind of improvise the questions presented to the actual and hypothetical writer are really almost unanswerable or when you try to answer them you find yourself involved with another question that's part of the trouble of being a writer which is part of the trouble of being a human being it's actually part of the trouble of being a society since society believes in answers and doesn't like questions that we return to that in a moment Albert Camus once wrote that the writer should be the voice of the dispossessed which is true enough as far as it goes in any case commune statement is always worried me a little bit because I lived in Paris and not because I knew the man but because I lived in Paris during the time of the Algerian French conflict a kind of civil war and in a way becoming statement in the light of what was happening in France before before 1954 when the Algerian conflict began or erupted more precisely always frightened me because it seemed to me that he did not himself equal what he was saying that is if it was a responsibility the writer to speak for the dispossessed I felt when I was living in France and watching this that come you were in born or an should certainly have known that the Algerian conflict was much more complex than the French generals all the French press all the French people wanted to believe and it struck me with great force there coming who talked about liberty in the case of Europeans and the existential this right to be wrong could only talk about justice in the case of Algeria and he should certainly have known that whatever the Algerians were fighting the French for it was not for yet another installment of French justice that was not the point he was unable and I'm using him as an perhaps unfairly as an example he was unable to see that his possessed for whom he claimed he had the necessity and the responsibility to speak it was then that I began to realize something about to sense a reality which unites what we will call the white world the doctrine of white supremacy which has the power to intimidate any possible witness for the dispossessed now having said all that I now go out on my own and I think that an answer to the question about the writers relationship to political ideology it is dangerous and it's unavoidable first of all in this country in this century but above all in this country no one really quite knows what a political political ideology is and a political ideology is not necessarily a political reality if one believes the press if one believes the television sets of America there is an ideology which as far as we know it's called communists that it's a catch-all word only one I can use all leftist and presumably that's political and presumably it differs entirely from whatever it is that we in the West claim to have or not have and a writer tries to deal with these terms which by the way are in any case dealing with him I realized a very long time ago or somebody pointed out to me in the days when I thought that all was possible for art's sake someone pointed out to me that whereas I might not be interested in politics politics was fascinated by me and there would be no way around that as long as there was breast in my body when we speak of the right and the left we are really it's an echo of a room in Paris around before the time of the French Revolution when various delegates were seated on the right in the middle on the left and these in time became representatives of various shades of political ideology the vocabulary which we use to describe the divergences between us come from a moment long ago a contested moment until today and sending a revolution which on the basis the evidence no one in America understands and everyone in England repudiates know it's true and and we don't know in short what we're talking about now when I write attempts to deal with this when I suggest standing here before you or on the page that we've not learned anything about anybody on certainly not about political ideology when we have labeled it leftist guerrilla right conservative this indicates I think a little bit of the difficulty one has a writer has when trying to deal with political ideologies which are always have to be simplified into slogan it is a terribly difficult thing to say but is the battle between the slogan it is somewhere between the battle in the battle between the slogan and the rider that the riders trouble is compounded because it is not so much that a rider's responsibility to speak for the dispossessed or to speak for those who cannot speak or any of that kind of removal the real anguish is that the rider is produced by comes out of everybody the people who produced him and the people who produced him produced him because they needed him they produced him because he is their only witness in terms of language they're only bull booked in terms of language against the anonymity of the state and the anonymity of the state is created by all of us you and me the reason that Plato wanted no poets in his Republic is because the rider is by definition a disturber of the peace he has to be he has to make you ask yourself make you realize that you're always asking yourself questions that you don't know how to face I would like to believe what I am told about Western history or about history – cool it's reinsured but I know better what I want to convey here is not so much that I know better you all love you know better and I know you know better cause you produced me this connects you see the series of Chinese boxes I've gotten involved in here with the minority writer and the minority writer is what precisely I look at the word and I ask myself I'm an already writer according to the language which we are trapped for the moment it's presumably by definition a writer whose concerns are more or less tangential to the concerns of what we call the mainstream for an American life and indeed in Western life there is mainstream and you better get into it if you ain't in the mainstream you are minority writer if not a female I'm not really trying to be sardonic but I want you to think about the terms Lange but you know the principal language these terms for example it is a real question whether or not the fate of rabbit in John Updike trilogy really obsesses most of the civilized world really has anything to do with the lives actually led that is out of the world's history in the real world it is disastrous I think to suppose that most of the world that world outside which is not white and by the way when I say it it's not white I mean it's black I mean it's very colored I mean it's something the American imagination and the Western imagination cannot imagine it doesn't dare imagine but the concerns on what we would describe brutally or not– brutally ads the American middle class are not the concerns of the world and cannot be the concerns of the future what am I saying it seems to me the part of the question facing the Western world has to do with a peculiar divorce between the artists and the people who reduce the artist a divorce which occurs in every single level beginning with the difficulty that the almost sheer impossibility of being a writer at all in a country and a culture so completely American Tyler it is not really a job you make a joke of it later but when you're very young and you not being entirely a fool I forced to realize that if you're going to live at all if you're going if you're not going to go under you're not going to betray everything then you're going to be you're gonna have to be a writer I don't think it's something anybody Cho chooses I don't think that it is so special a condition as the Western world makes it but what does happen but above all in this country is when you begun to make the first steps in yourself to being reconciled to being a writer you've also at the very same moment the very same gesture taking upon yourself the necessity of being a maverick so that people say when you start scribbling he will ask you when you're young and innocent don't know no veteran then how to answer over the ayah the way I answered for example was this you asked me what do you do when I say I'm a writer and you all say to me yeah but what do you do finally if you get past all that and people stop saying you finally get a job after you say I have a job but that's very important it is compounded of course in this country by the realities of sex color and the moral choices everyone in the society is supposed to make somebody wanted to know what was the status of an American writer and the truth about it is that his status is a little lower it's true not a joke I've been a competent garage mechanic people do not take it seriously at least some one level they don't take it seriously they don't take it serious enough to try to act on what they know they know they don't take it serious in order to try to to dare risking their identities but that is when it comes to what we think we are controls is far more than who we really are and that's why that's why the writer is always in a way in such trouble I'm trying too hard I'm trying really to be honest in all of these questions down no so I'm sort of halfway through no I'm not joking really it is a difficult assignment because the next question is how do you perceive your public that's a real question all these real questions by the way if I'm joking about the women who frightened more than little how do you perceive your public is a very curious question I can't say it is exactly 20th century question but it does come it is one of the results language which one is forced to deal with it is one of the results of the Industrial Revolution I put it that way because before then at some point before then the question was nothing and nothing to do with once public it concerned ones on it ones audience and ones audience is a very different thing than one's public an artist by beginning to work begins to create his audience I can't really describe that further than that there's an audience waiting for him or her which can only begin to be activated when he or she begins to work the artist may create an audience which he will feel an audience which will nourish him but he may never have a public a public exists in the time of the artist time almost by definition an audience is in some sense timeless in the same sense that the artist hopes his work will be timeless a public reacts to a personality and God knows we should know that in this country by now and personalities come and go like fast food the trick born artist is to trust his audience and to know that his audience trusts him and he cannot cheat that invisible 1 or 2 or multitudes of people between him within him/her and that audience there is an unspoken bond an unspoken promise not to betray to try to tell the truth and every artist knows that it is impossible to tell the truth it is a tremendous word and it shimmers like a butterfly and it goes like that it comes like that you can't tell the truth but you have to trust it you have to know that you don't know you have to know that every time you have found an answer to a question you're really found another question this is because time is what it is and the answer for me may not be the answer for my nephew the answer for a boy born in my time and place will not apply to a boy born in Brazil of a boy born in China and that is why one has to try to deal with the truth or let the truth to you both you was only with that humility that we're going to have the courage really to learn to love each other which is really if you really want to think about it now I'm not speaking so much as a writer perhaps but is a Brahma Rider we are supposed to love each other the writers are supposed to know that and that is what makes him so dangerous I used to watch people when I was very young I was fascinated by people and I was fascinated by words and the reasons I cannot possibly really decipher it meant to me somehow a way of finding out who I'm not so much you but who I was certainly but where I was first it was almost like a game you know I can still remember some of the things I described like the 1933 Plymouth which had any action wheels I say the cause of that that spring which gave the carny action we wish to draw Plymouth cause why I don't know sailboats make up stories by the Deacons in the brothers and sisters in the church described in this way in that way read everything it was it quite indiscriminately just I just read in my circumstances they voted heels in my future it was not very likely that a boy like me and given the black white history of this country and also as far as I knew would ever become a writer but I was lucky in my family really I was lucky in short and luck to the word I want it was the only thing I could do it was that's what I've been born to do this is all this is always what really in some way in this very rational age frightens any anybody you know anybody who says that maybe that's what I was born to do it does run the risk of seeming to be mystical irresponsible or one of those people never read Freud but I can hardly put it any other way I had a lot to describe no I was in many ways if you like poverty stricken by was that poverty stricken in that way there was a lot around me to look at to deal with to to be terrified out to learn from coming back now to the question of the unquote minority writer people I knew people I grew up with people in the church people in the street people in jail the people committed suicide the people who turned into junk Goods people eternity junkies people are turned into cops people ended up in the post office you'll end up you know fourteen-year-old girl with a baby and the father nowhere to be found the music the tambourine the blues nothing and all of that nothing at all that impressed me is being a tall miner it seemed to me then and I know it now that was what was happening all around me every day every hour dip it in no way whatever from what Charles Dickens was telling me about his France and England generations before I was born didn't seem to me that anything happening around me was different than what Tolstoy was talking about or Dostoyevsky or Shakespeare it seemed to me that all this was a part of life that all this is a part of some universal wonder some Universal challenge some universal danger it was much much later in my life really that the question of color began to afflict when my friend Maya Angelou bacall my smallest mind I got into trouble really backing on the assumption that there was no real difference between press call knockoff and me none at all I would have split a pawnbrokers head with an axe almost any other Saturday the pawnbroker lived on the corner and everything we owned was there heinously was calling up very well as understood all of that cast of characters it was only later but people told me but you can't know but he was white you're black but they told me too late by the time they told me I was already beyond hope when I was reading Dostoyevsky he reconciled me to he made me feel precisely this I'm not the first person to suffer this way it happened to somebody else it would happen to somebody else then I can bear it it would happen to somebody else then it's true it would happen somebody else I'm not alone but it was my country which insisted that what happened to me was very different what happened Oliver Twist does my country which insisted that I was a minority writer having no connection with the civilized culture that I historically and actually had to settle not so much for second base or second rate but was supposed to accept my Master's version of my experience he knew more about my experience and I did I was expected to take his version of my experience and write it down and give it back to him and thus I went to the mainstream and become I would still be a minority writer of course but at least I would have a civilized point of view I am not joking and furthermore I've been around a while and I wish I could tell you that the dynamic I have suggested has changed but it hasn't finally a writer's responsibilities to his time in place and there's the way around that one doesn't wish to examine too closely the connection between Commerce our and morality not only art in danger morality is fearfully compromised and the people are in danger what every writer perhaps we'd like to let us say activate on the part of his audience and these present days as part of his public is the daring to act on the question because finally the nation which produces the artist people which produce the artists are responsible to two things they're responsible first of all to themselves they're responsible for the country in which they find themselves which is after all our result and a direct result other responsibilities one takes for it or the fairly to take responsibility for it it is time and it's country to overhaul or great many things to question everything in fact and they are is late I am not absolutely certain you know that we can afford this apathy I'm not certain you know they're being wait for someone else to do it in the next century most of you sit before me now emerge much younger in seventeen years which is when the next century begins that I am now and I am only 59 and I'll probably be here too but we're talking about not really the right of responsibility but all our responsibility we have first of all to take upon ourselves the responsibility of making sure there is a next century it is not a stage joke we can blow up the world it seems to me that one has to then re-examine the language the assumptions and the morality which has led us to this place I refuse to believe I refuse to believe that we cannot do better than that that we are not better than that I refuse to believe they were going to let ourselves be manipulated into oblivion by some of the most illiterate people in the history of the world that is our responsibility and if they get past this point and I am certain somehow that we will then we can on another day again take up the question of what's the use of a rider that's what the question really means and perhaps you know realize that his calling may be to be the moral custodian of the always evolving human race thank you we enter now the question and response period I want to ask you one which is that one of the things that has fascinated me about your life and career is that you have you are a writer and you are also a spokesman going back to 20 years ago this year 1963 with the publication of our next time and I have been fascinated by and admiring of the ability to at least from my perception the spokesman never engorge the writer as it were and you walked the kind of tightrope it seems to me between being a writer and being a spokesman could you talk about that a little bit yeah I well I could try it was a tightrope certainly it was it was very frightening I can't really answer the question this is what happened I came back from Paris to go to Little Rock well there's more to it than that I was in Paris working on well I was working on a book but I knew who I was coming I knew that I was coming back here for it was beneath me to stay in Paris it was beneath me to to read about it in the papers besides I have a family no I didn't come back to be a spokesman I came back to be a witness and no least to know what was happening little wrong and I became a spokesman by accident reading but it was very frightening but I learned that I could principle I learned that no she is the the people in the deep south needed someone to carry the news out and I found out that I could do that I've been in the magazine where lon try to be frightened by magazine editors and when they said to me it's not for your readers I could say you don't mean that is of your advertisers and furthermore I live in France I lived in England so I could always say to well you want to publish it after London does it or before I had a certain kind of nuisance value and laughing that's what happened and I was never in a way at war with it no the two rows I was simply frightened about it because being on this lecture platform for example talking is oh I think I know something is one thing and I have to be here for and had to be there you know for it's a matter of mine it was a kind of responsibility and it scared me because he act the effort of being a writer is exactly antithetical to it you have to sit down by yourself and realize you don't know anything but so far so good we have a question over here yes and yeah your view of the writer as moral custodian I was I was wondering how you respond how you would respond to charges of self-righteousness in the conflict between self righteousness and righteousness by by criticism given to us created by criticism I think well I don't think that morality was series anything to us being self-righteous and again we aren't talking with the language I'm when I talk when I talk about morality I'm not talking about any church or any member of Congress I'm I am talking about what I conceived of as their ultimate necessity of the human being to treat other people as human that is all I mean by morality I'm not choosing one church over another I'm not attempting to blackmail anyone I hope I'm not self-righteous but I do think it is the highest duty of a man or a woman to become a moral human being question here do you make compromises with what you call the world of Commerce as opposed to your world of art how many compromises well the comments every time I pay my rent that has your question but you don't compromise and what you write about for as opposed to what people might want you to write about her well you can't really do that really you know that's if you do that you've you can't you can't really do that and you can try you know you know you can but you can't really do that now what is your vision of the world where the writers are the legislators what is my vision of the world with writers or the legislators I don't think you know I'm not making any grandiose claims for being a writer I could I couldn't run a gas station you know I think that the reference to Joyce's quote about writers are the artists of the unacknowledged legislators of the world it's a grandiose statement and there's a level of which I can see the truth of it but I certainly got to live by that you know I don't think I would have to break that down I certainly cannot know disseminate it I think it's romantic view and inflated view of the role of an artist I think that an artist teaches you somebody put it to me lead you back to reality again you make you see as of the first time something you've been seeing all your life and in that sense you know an artist is very very powerful but he is not really useful in least no Statesman thinks he is in in the halls of power you see a legislators point of view has got to be public by definition an artist point of view is always private but you don't see what I mean do you well I think that the social responsibility of the artist writer is to be the leader of the world I should know her I know her I know being a writer has noise is difficult enough nothing that the artists responsibilities first of all to become an artist and that is not an isolated endeavor that does that mean that he is no social responsibility the only way you can execute their responsibility is by learning to do best what he can do best I cannot give you a blueprint I'm not a politician I'm not a legislator and if I could give you a blueprint if I had one I wouldn't give it to you because if you don't figure out how to do it yourself it will not be done it is you the people have to be the leaders this is the this is where you misses my point yes I'm really wondering about the battle that the artist has and identifying him or herself as an artist and where that battle should be fought whether it's with the self or with the society and my question is do you feel that a writer should be valued over an auto mechanic do I feel the radish to be valued over and out of my County no that is not exactly what I meant to say I was talking about no I don't know I don't but I was talking about the the presumptions of this so-called classless society you know I was talking really I'm suggesting trying to suggest I was being a little flipped I was trying to suggest really the loneliness of the mechanic and the loneliness of the writer you know there's something about they're both in false positions that's what I was trying to say you speak about writers as moral custodians and moralists and also that they have a social responsibility and it seems obvious that when you write that you have something that you want to say that you feel something is right and it's something is wrong do you feel that through your writing that you've changed anything no I don't think I've change anything no no I wish I could say yes no I don't mean by people reading your post you think that they're they've elevated their consciousness in some way or that they've that you've achieved something by getting them to read what you have to say I know what you mean I know I know what you're asking me it's not a question I can easily answer because I that's me but I think I've changed anything no I don't think so but then again I wouldn't know and I think I'll never know but if you change your something in you you know that's what it's about you see what I mean well that's what I'm yeah yeah well you see I won't know that that you had to know that you had to know that and I have to trust it did you see what I mean to the left I would like to ask you and one of your books I believe you mentioned a statement saying that the world was white but it will never be white again I can't recall the book but what did you mean by that specifically I what I meant by that was almost but I said let's see I think that's general that's that's yes about the Swiss village let stranger in the village I think I'm pretty sure that's right and I said I was saying that comparing the village when I was in the village where they never seen a black man before and it's coming right there put up their hands in my skin to see if rubbed off and some young platitude to things of my hair which I didn't like but I translated comparison between the village in which I found myself they really had never seen a black man before and the place in which I know was common cane place which I was born where they had to me for four hundred years and I was trying to suggest that the innocence of that village was not possible for for Americans in any way whatever and that the world America was facing I would never be white again thank you yes I was wondering if could you give us some advice to young artists who are afraid of what they want to be but are afraid they may not be what they want to be they cannot become what they want to be why don't you join the club I am not really joking and I hope you never change you see what I mean mr. Baldwin how does a novelist are the writer as the moral custodian write about sin using grace without sounding righteous well first of all I'm not sure when I hear your question I'm not quite sure you can do it I'm not quite sure I believe or see so clearly the division between Grace and sin I think that may be more difficult and more private than or mysterious matter then the language would lead us to believe we're all sacred we're all doomed you see what I mean I don't some ladies some prostitutes who were in a state of grace I don't some holy people who want a state of sin to put it mildly to the left hi um well you kind of left me with a bit of a problem you said that people who were your audience in other words people who produced you had two responsibilities you said that they were responsible for themselves and you said they were responsible for or they should try some I guess be responsible for their country not I don't know what you mean by that you know I know that's my problem you know but you said that before but how do you do what you mean by that what do you mean by that country I mean I can see caring about I can see as an individual being responsible for my car payments and responsible for my mind you know or my Hollywood you mean but as an individual being responsible for my country now that leaves it open to you know some people can be very harsh or cruel I mean you know it was responsible for his country you know hey what do you say I said he took an attitude of responsibility for his country Hitler that was in his mind ah so I'm worried no that is not quick that is not quite what I had in mind no no no no when I said I was think about myself and my own my own direct at exceedance responsible for one's country and I suppose it sounds grandiose but one way or another you are in any case whether you either know it or you don't know it in the case in my own case I was making a claim coming out of antecedents speaking as the grandson of a slave which is what I am and I say responsible to my country because I didn't want any be driven out of it because my father's father's father's father's paid for it and whatever happens in this country affects me there's no way for me to escape it you know that is what I mean and I think that's true for and that's in principle true for everybody you know and when it say Hitler was responsible for his country you should learn to turn the coin over and ask yourself where everybody else was you see what I mean I'm saying I'm about all I'm really saying is you cannot sign a separate peace you see what I mean by that no I said you cannot sign a separate peace if I'm in trouble you are – well it seems that if you say that to me the first thing I think of doing would be going out and joining an organization why I feel like that's a cop-out why I don't know well who's responsible you are then you are at the moment well all I can be responsible is for what I have the wisdom to keep on keeping on I'm gonna ask you know that that's exactly what it all anyone can do I'm not asking to join anything I know you're not but I'm saying that you know being of an average mind that's what would pop into my head I should join the nuclear movies or do this or you know well but then the problem is okay if I joined the nuclear freeze and I don't give a damn about what happens to the person next door to me you know then what kind of a person am I and that's the well you seem to be getting the point okay I have this quiz question written down I've been preoccupied with what it means to be writing and thinking under threat of nuclear annihilation it was a time when I told myself I was writing thinking even living in order to redeem my past make of my life a work of art and creatively usher in a future and I'm having a hard time holding on to this sense of purpose in the face of annihilation of the human race and I want to know how do you hold on to your sense of purpose I planted a very hard answer because it's much older than you first of all so it's not really funny is already a question I could say you know and it would be true that the world which is coming which which belongs to you I believe in that I believe in you I don't see how my generation can play it any other way I think one has to be concerned I think we are responsible for the world which we are leaving you you see what I mean keep the faith it's all I can tell you you had you have after you may not know it but we have the power to do something about it you cannot pretend we cannot pretend we don't we cannot do this nothing moment to this bam thank you in the back I'd like to ask you a question about humility and heroism it seems as though throughout the course of your lecture and subsequent questions that people have been using the phrase moral custodian an awful lot and it seems to connote an action of cleaning up so to speak but yet it seems to me in the works of yours that I've read and studied that those characters that are heroic or the most noble don't aspire to any positions of leadership they're not they don't actively or deliberately try to change anything or to clean anything or anybody up there are nobility it seems to me seems to be just in a basic human dignity whether it's embodied in suffering or generosity or the act of love and if those are the kinds of people whether man or woman and any type of character that comprise your heroes how does it affected you as a writer being private and sharing your private thoughts and yet having to be public and maybe not always in the position to exercise or to show up to show those kinds of qualities or be given the chance to show those qualities that your heroes have it's very I think I hear your question lets him when I say moral custodial I was speaking in terms as being manageable long past and that alone future maybe the story was I was not exactly the word I want I mean in the sense of Stuart maybe I should have said witness which might have been a clearer word but I think the word moral threw you off too but I did not mean right I'm not referring to any sect or religion or any particular book of the Bible any of those things I'm talking about what I can see well actually and historically that you know when speaking as a writer as the possibilities reality of human being the sacredness of the human being is what I'm really talking about and which is out of that Center I think out of one's what one the leaves or consensus what was in some way knows about human life about oneself and about the other and the ways in which were all connected I'm talking about that and every artist in one way or another you know that's because the writer but I forgot it but I could because I could be a composer is every artist the work of an artist is principle above all to bear witness to that which is an irreducible truth and in some way invariant by bearing witness allow help all of us to execute our responsibility toward each other and toward something much more than that – it's all connected I can't be difficult to be clear about it but you see I hope you see something what I mean I just to make it perhaps more clear in my mind so you would say that for that connection to be possible it has to start on a personal level yes you talk to oneself uh-huh yeah that's what I'm trying to say thank you thank you take one last question if the artist is supposed to look after us or morally oh well what I got heard you say was if artists are moral custodians or somehow privy to information other people don't have oh no no no no they're somehow better that was the feeling no no no I do not mean that at all I'm not mean that at all I said custodian if I could have said as I said steward and I said morrel I'm why I ride with the rising artists always in trouble in every society we've ever heard of it's because not because he not because he hates the people and not because you think he's better than they are but because he challenges something in them to do something they know they can do and don't want to do are afraid to do because it would make them lonely there will be there will be an estimate this is what Hitchin is all about then what is it enemy of the people about for example it is not because it was better than the people in that town who were afraid to declare a plague because they would lose money but it's all all about what is Picasso's Guernica about he's not because he thought it was better than the Spaniards were being bombed out of existence by the reservoir third right but in the act to Payton again occurred which he kept with him which he kept in France but not allowed without Spain until Franco was dead dude that is being there is a as close as I can come to what I learned by being a moral custodian but does that mean the Picasso thought he was better it doesn't mean that I think I'm better it means that it means I have to try to bear witness to what I know you know whatever not if that were not so then note then the writer wouldn't be in trouble another thing I know something different is because I know exactly what you know and you know I know it you see what I mean does it take an artist to do that that depends on you


  1. ‘You have to know that you don’t know’. Baldwin stands alone in some sense and yet i can just imagine him pulling me up calmly and questioning my observation. So I will say this Baldwin’s text should be in every school, college, university and every single household. That’s my two pence.

  2. "Society believes in answers and doesn't like questions." Our unavoidable alienation – Baldwin gets me to wear it and maybe even own it, and I thank him for it. A "minority writer" – yeah, right – the 99% minority. Make that the 99% of writers and poets, at least.

  3. "I refuse to believe that we are going to let ourselves to be manipulated into oblivion by some of the most illiterate people in the history of the world!" James Baldwin

  4. "I refuse to believe that we are going to let ourselves to be manipulated into oblivion by some of the most illiterate people in the
    history of the world!" > Some 30 years later and Baldwin still is so much on point!

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